Streams are a control flow abstraction native to node to read, transform and write data. Streams are composable, efficient and easy! Yes, really. As a stream consumer, you can consider streams to be the simpler counterpart to Promises. This section is meant to give you a pragmatic introduction to streams. If you're looking for a guide that covers all aspects, check out the stream handbook by substack.


There are 4 types of streams:

  • read: data can be read from (e.g. fs.createReadStream)
  • write: data can be written to (e.g. fs.createWriteStream)
  • duplex: data can be read from and data can be written to (e.g. websockets)
  • transform: data can be written to, transformed and then read from (e.g. gzip)

Streams originate from shell, where commands can be piped together using the | (pipe) character. Take this copy function:

$ cat ./my-file > ./other-file

Now using node streams:

const fs = require('fs')


The stream reads from a file (./my-file) using a read stream and writes to a file (./other-file) using a write stream. The speed is throttled to the slowest operation (probably hard disk writes), and data is only requested when the hard disk is ready to write a new chunk making it super efficient.


Using streams reduces the amount of memory required by a node program, making the program faster and less prone to crash. Using the regular fs.readFile / fs.readFileSync APIs with 'utf8' will devour resources and eventually crash on large files.


In shell / unix the most common operation is to read data from a source, transform it, and then write it back out. In shell:

# read file, find lines containing `foo`, echo to stdout
$ cat ./my-file | grep 'foo'

The same program using streams:

const through = require('through2')
const fs = require('fs')


// grep `transform` stream
// regex -> (buf, str, fn) -> null
function grep (regex) {
  return (chunk, enc, cb) => {
    if (regex.test(chunk.toString())) this.push(chunk)

This program does the same as the bash function. The reason why the code looks more verbose is because:

  1. we're importing dependencies explicitly rather than relying on globals
  2. we implemented the grep function from scratch

To make sure you understand what's going on, let's break down the code:

  1. we import the fs and through2 modules (more on stream modules later)
  2. we create a read stream from ./my-file
  3. we connect the read stream to a transform stream that filters our data
  4. we connect our filtered data to stdout

The grep function works as follows:

  1. grep takes a regex and returns a function that can be consumed by through2
  2. through2 creates a transform stream from a function
  3. the function in through2 gets a chunk (buffer), encoding (string) and callback (function) passed in
  4. if the stringified buffer (.toString()) passed the regex check, push it to transform's stream read stream (e.g. to the next .pipe() function)
  5. call the callback once done so the next chunk can be processed

And that's it! You should now understand what a read stream is, how to create transform streams, and how to pipe data back out to either stdout or a file.


By design Node only exposes bare essentials, leaving much of the staple functionality to live in userland (npm). If you're working with streams, these are probably the packages you want to be using.

These descriptions were extracted from mississippi, a convenience wrapper for common streaming functions.


pump(stream1, stream2, stream3, ..., cb)

Pipes streams together and destroys all of them if one of them closes. Calls cb with (error) if there was an error in any of the streams.

When using standard source.pipe(destination) the source will not be destroyed if the destination emits close or error. You are also not able to provide a callback to tell when then pipe has finished.

pump does these two things for you, ensuring you handle stream errors 100% of the time (unhandled errors are probably the most common bug in most node streams code)

// lets do a simple file copy
var fs = require('fs')

var read = fs.createReadStream('./')
var write = fs.createWriteStream('./')

// use pump instead of read.pipe(write)
pump(read, write, function (err) {
  if (err) return console.error('Copy error!', err)
  console.log('Copied successfully')


pipeline = pumpify(stream1, stream2, stream3, ...)

Builds a pipeline from all the transform streams passed in as arguments by piping them together and returning a single stream object that lets you write to the first stream and read from the last stream

If any of the streams in the pipeline emits an error or gets destroyed, or you destroy the stream it returns, all of the streams will be destroyed and cleaned up for you

// first create some transform streams (note: these two modules are fictional)
const imageResize = require('image-resizer-stream')({width: 400})
const pngOptimizer = require('png-optimizer-stream')({quality: 60})

// instead of doing a.pipe(b), use pipeline
const resizeAndOptimize = pumpify(imageResize, pngOptimizer)
// `resizeAndOptimize` is a transform stream. when you write to it, it writes
// to `imageResize`. when you read from it, it reads from `pngOptimizer`.
// it handles piping all the streams together for you

// use it like any other transform stream
const fs = require('fs')

const read = fs.createReadStream('./image.png')
const write = fs.createWriteStream('./resized-and-optimized.png')

pump(read, resizeAndOptimize, write, function (err) {
  if (err) return console.error('Image processing error!', err)
  console.log('Image processed successfully')


duplex = duplexify([writable, readable, opts])

Take two separate streams, a writable and a readable, and turn them into a single duplex (readable and writable) stream

The returned stream will emit data from the readable, and when you write to it, it writes to the readable

You can either choose to supply the writable and the readable at the time you create the stream, or you can do it later using the .setWritable and .setReadable methods, and data written to the stream in the meantime will be buffered for you

const stdio = duplexify(process.stdout, process.stdin)


transform = through2(fn(chunk, enc, cb))

through2 is a module that allows you to create a transform stream from a function, rather than a full prototype chain. It can operate on either buffers or objects if opt.objectMode = true.

const through = require('through2')
const csv = require('csv-parser')
const fs = require('fs')


function throughFn (chunk, enc, cb) {
  const data = {
    address: chunk.address
  cb(null, data)


file = concatStream(fn(data))

Sometimes you need to operate on a full file rather than individual chunks. concat-stream concatenates the full content of a stream and then calls the callback. It is not a transform stream, more of a stream sink.

const concatStream = require('concat-stream')
const fs = require('fs')

  .pipe(concatStream((data) => {
      // data is `cat.jpg` as a buffer


Streams are a superset of node's EventEmitter, relying on events to communicate between streams. .pipe() is a convenience function to attach the right listeners to the events. Back-pressure (letting the parent stream know you're ready / not ready to consume data) requires event emitters to be attached to both sides of the .pipe().

Event emitters allow a one to many relationship. A single value can be passed to multiple callbacks (listeners). Callbacks can self-register on an emitter, making them fully composable.

streams chart

The following events are exposed:


  • 'readable':
  • 'data':
  • 'end':
  • 'close':
  • 'error':


  • 'drain':
  • 'finish':
  • 'pipe':
  • 'unpipe':
  • 'error':


  • 'readable':
  • 'data':
  • 'end':
  • 'close':
  • 'drain':
  • 'finish':
  • 'pipe':
  • 'unpipe':
  • 'error':


  • 'readable':
  • 'data':
  • 'end':
  • 'close':
  • 'drain':
  • 'finish':
  • 'pipe':
  • 'unpipe':
  • 'error':

Creating streams

[email protected] introduced the simplified stream constructor which makes creating streams a breeze. It's best practice to not use node's core stream module but instead pull in readable-stream.


  • this.push: push a new chunk down the stream
  • this.push(null): signal the end of the stream
  • this.emit('error', err): emit an error
// turn a string into a readable stream
function (msg) {
  const ln = msg.length
  var i = 0
  return  new stream.Readable({
    read: n => {
      if (i >= ln) return this.push(null) // no more data, end stream
      this.push(msg.slice(i, n)) // push n bytes from the string
      i += n // change the string index to the last location


Testing streams



Async return pattern

This is quite similar to how you'd expect Promises to work, but it has all the benefits of streams and none of the issues that plague promises. Sometimes streams are created in an async fashion. In order to create a stream "promise", you return an empty PassThrough stream, into which later data is streamed to.

const stream = require('stream')
const pump = require('pump')
const fs = require('fs')

function myAsyncFn () {
  // create a PassThrough stream that we will pipe data to
  const pts = new stream.PassThrough

  // start async action
  process.setNextTick(function () {
    const rs = fs.createReadStream('foobar.jpg')
    // use 'pump' to safely combine streams
    pump(rs, pts)

  // return the (still) empty PassThrough stream
  return pts

Keep stream open after it ends

const stream = require('readable-stream')

const pts1 = new stream.PassThrough({ end: false })
const pts2 = new Stream.PassThrough()

// when stream1 ends, stream2 is kept open

See Also

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